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The battery usually also includes four triple-missile transporter erector launchers TELsand four trucks, each carrying three spare missiles and a crane.
In addition to NIIP several other design bureaus were involved in the creation of the Kub missile system including Mytishchi Machine-Building Plant which designed and produced the chassis of the self-propelled components. Many of the design bureaus Montana Kub later go on to co-operate in the development of the successor to the 2K12 "Kub", the 9K37 "Buk".
First trials of the missile system were started at the end of to discover a series of problems:. Still, the work was not intensified. Before only 11 of 83 missiles Montana Kub had the seeker head installed; only 3 launches were successful. Kub downed its first-ever air target on February 18,during the state trials at Donguz test siteOrenburg Oblast.
It was an Ilyushin Il bomber. The system entered an extended testing period between andafter overcoming the technical difficulties of producing the 2K12 "Kub" the system was accepted into service on 23 January and went into production that same year. It is sometimes claimed that the M Shtorm naval system is a version of the 3M9 but this Montana Kub not the case, as the M Shtorm is a Montana Kub system and, unusually for Russian surface-to-air missiles, has no land-based variant.
A modernised variant underwent trial testing in eventually being adopted in as the "Kub-M1". After the Rastov visit to Egypt in to see Kub in operation  he decided upon the development of a new system, called Buk, where each TEL should have its own fire control radar TELAR and is able to engage multiple targets from multiple directions at the same time.
The final major development of the Kub missile system was achieved during the development of its successor, the 9K37 "Buk" in Although the Buk is the successor to Kub it was decided that both systems could share some interoperability, the result of this decision was the "Kub-M4" system. The Kub-M4 was adopted into service in following completion of trials.
Some early development interpretations of the Buk missile system heavily utilized Kub components, including the 3M9 missile. There are several plans to integrate active radar homing missiles into Kub. The modifications were made by Retia. In many ways they are designed to complement each other; 2K11 is effective at long ranges and high altitudes, 2K12 at medium Barbie Painting Pictures and intermediate altitudes.
IFF is also performed using this radar. It can only guide one or two missiles to a single target at any time. The missile is initially command guided with terminal semi-active radar homing SARHwith target illumination provided by the "Straight Flush" radar. Detonation is via either the impact or proximity fuze. The optical tracking method also allows engagements to altitudes below that where the radar is able to track targets.
Maximum target speed is around Mach 2 for head-on engagements and Mach 1 Montana Kub tail-chase engagements. Top speed of the missile is approximately Mach 2. The fairly large missiles have an effective Montana Kub of 4—24 km 2. The missile weighs kg 1, lb and the warhead weighs 56 kg lb.
Top missile speed is approx. Mach 2. The combined propulsion system 9D16K included solid fuel rocket motor which, when burned out, forms the combustion chamber for a ramjet Montana Kub a pioneering design putting this missile far ahead of its contemporaries in terms of propulsion.
The missile was fitted with a semi-active radar seeker 1SB4, designed by MNII Agatwhich was able to track the target by Doppler frequency since the start. Later upgrades 3M9M3 missile could do this Kopenhagen Webcam the start.
Chief Designer of the seeker head was Yu. Vekhov, since — I. For comparisons between the 2K12, 9K37, see the 9K37 Buk entry. SURN 1S91 vehicle included two radar station — a target acquisition and distribution radar 1S11 and a continuous wave illuminator 1S31, in addition to an IFF interrogator and an optical channel.
While 1S31 antenna was installed on the upper section of the superstructure and the 1S11 on the lower, they could turn around independently. To make the height of the vehicle lower the central cylinder was able to hide inside the prime mover. The acquisition range of the radar was reported as 50 km 31 mi for an F-4 Phantom II type of target. Total weight of the 1S91 vehicle with a Montana Kub of 4 was The 2K12 can also be used at a regimental level, if used as such it can be accompanied by Montana Kub number of additional radar systems for extended air search at longer range and lower altitude, to supplement the 1S91 "Straight Flush".
These systems include the:. Without the P "Long Track" mobile radar vehicle, the 2K12 is unable to track aircraft at high altitudes. The Egyptian and Syrian 2K12s surprised the Israeli military in the Yom Kippur Warbecause they were accustomed to having air superiority over the battlefield. The highly mobile 2K12 took a heavy toll on the slower A-4 Skyhawk and even the F-4 Phantom Amber Lustfull, forming a protective umbrella until they could be removed.
The radar warning receivers on the Israeli aircraft did not alert the pilot to the fact that he was being illuminated by the radar. The 2K12 achieved a good performance as a weapon according to a conversation between Israeli General Peled and Henry Kissingerand was the main anti-air missile in Egyptian inventory to cause Israeli losses followed by the 9K32 Strela The superior low altitude performance of the weapon, and its new CW semi-active missile seeker resulted in a much higher success rate compared to the earlier S Dvina and S Neva systems.
But in subsequent conflicts, its performance declined as captured examples resulted in effective counter-measures being developed. Milf Anal remained close to the existing Syrian air defense system but could not be fully integrated into it.
The result was a complete success. Several 2K12 Kub batteries, along with Ss and S systems, were destroyed in a single day. While Syria's own air defenses remained largely intact, its forces in Lebanon were left exposed to attacks by Israeli strike aircraft for the remainder of the war. It has been reported, however, that at least one Israeli Amateur Threesome Phantom fighter-bomber was shot down in the area by an SA-6 on July 24, Forces of the Polisario Front acquired two full batteries of 2K12 Kub missiles from Algeria during the Western Sahara Warwhich they used effectively against the fighters of the Royal Moroccan Air Forceincluding shooting down two Mirage F1 fighters in during a major battle in Guelta Zemmur.
The aircraft was flying 21 km 13 mi from the coast over the Baltic Sea near Ustka. The pilot, General Andrzej Andrzejewskiejected and was rescued after two hours in the water.
The system was deployed by Libya during the border dispute with Chad and proved a threat for French aircraft. On 16 Februarythe system failed in detecting low flying French jets which were attacking the Ouadi Doum airbase. In March, the Chadian rebels captured Ouadi Doum air baseLinda Cardellini Boobs virtually all heavy equipment used for the defense of this airfield, intact.
With this catastrophe, the Libyan occupation of northern Chad — and the annexation of the Aouzou Strip — was over: by 30 March, the bases at Faya Largeau and Aouzou had to be abandoned.
The LARAF now had a completely different task: its Tu Bs were to attack the abandoned bases and destroy as much Montana Kub left there as possible. The first strikes were flown in April, and they continued until 8 Augustwhen two TuBs tasked to strike Aouzou were ambushed by a captured 2K12 Kub battery used by the Chadian Army.
One of the bombers was shot down. Libyan air defense, including 2K12 Kub batteries, was active during the military intervention in Libya.
The batteries were active since the start of the war in Septemberscoring kills against U. Kub systems were active again during the war. Different versions of this engagement are told. It was combat loss number 10 in Operation Desert Storm.
The pilot, Captain Harry 'Mike' Roberts, ejected safely but was taken prisoner and freed in March The aircraft was on a mission to attack the Air Defense Headquarters Building. It had flown 4 Montana Kub missions before being lost. Kubs continued to be used by the Iraqi military, along with other SAM systems, to challenge the Western imposed no-fly zones during the s and early s.
They were not able to shoot down any Coalition Hdreporn though several Rule 34 Anime were destroyed Montana Kub retaliation. Predrag Milutinović was downed by a Kub battery in a friendly fire incident, while approaching Niš Airport after an unsuccessful engagement with NATO aircraft. Using shoot Montana Kub scoot tactics, the self-propelled ground system demonstrated a good survivability with only three radars lost Montana Kub the face of nearly four-hundred AGM shots.
As comparison the fixed S and S sites suffered Montana Kub to around 66 to 80 percent. On April 14,American, British, and French forces launched air-to-surface and cruise missiles targeting sites in Syria. According to the Russian military, twenty-one Kub missiles launched in response allegedly destroyed eleven Fifi Intro missiles,  However, the American Department of Defense stated no Allied missiles were shot down.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the Apollo flight, see AS For other uses, see 2K12 disambiguation. Tracked medium-range surface-to-air missile system. Surface-to-air missile. Surface-to-air missile training target imitator system. Photo by Montana Kub AFB. P "Long Track" early warning radar. Archived from the original on 16 January Retrieved 1 November Archived from the original on 21 April Retrieved 15 August Archived from the original on 21 December Retrieved 19 November Archived from the original on 23 January Retrieved 23 August Archived from the original on 29 November Retrieved 14 November Archived from the original on 2 July
The battery usually also includes four triple-missile transporter erector launchers TELs , and four trucks, each carrying three spare missiles and a crane. In addition to NIIP several other design bureaus were involved in the creation of the Kub missile system including Mytishchi Machine-Building Plant which designed and produced the chassis of the self-propelled components.
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